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However, if you would prefer not to receive cookies, you may alter rare earth investing news canada configuration of your browser to refuse cookies. The company is investigating both magnetic separation and free-flow electrophoresis separation of REE compounds. Airborne surveys have shown the presence of REEs. Story continues Mr. They are located primarily in the minerals monazite, bastnaesite and xenotime. Kohyann has in-depth experience in logistics and operations, metal and mining trading, arbitrage and derivatives trading and risk management.

Galleass forex peace netdania forex rates download

Galleass forex peace

Comes painted as shown. Comes painted and assembled as shown. By Miniature Building Authority. Building has a removable roof to allow you to get into your building. Comes with five structures. Buildings have removable roofs to allow you to get into your buildings. Figures are 28mm sized, made of metal and supplied unpainted. Nearly all plastic construction with a high degree of detail. Great for WWII 25mmmm gaming. This is the version with the captured Russian These spears are for 28mm figures, they can be used as pikes at mm, or cut down to any size for spears and javelins.

They can also be used for flag poles. This box set contains enough parts for you to build 30 Dwarf Infantry. We provide you with enough weapon options to make them all spearmen, all hand weapon and shield, all archers or any combination of the three. Each frame also contains a standard bearer and officer option. Box also contains 30 plastic bases, 25mm square, manufactured by Renedra. The figures are supplied unpainted and in kit form. You will need plastic cement to stick them together.

The flag and shield designs are not supplied in the box. We provide you with enough weapon options to make them all 2-handed Weapons or all hand weapon and shield. You will need plastic cement to glue them together.

Box also contains 15 plastic bases, 25mm by 50mm, manufactured by Renedra. All the 28mm figures in this set can be assembled in full or campaign dress, and either at full charge, sword shouldered, or attacking. The Austrian Hussars were the most colourful troops in the Austrian army, all coming from the Hungarian part of the Austrian empire. They were used for all duties; scouting, skirmishing, and in battle.

It also includes unit bases and an information sheet with eight flags. They are also supplied with Home Service helmets so can be used for any potential invasion from France, Germany, or even Mars! There are 38 miniatures in the box including four casualties, two Heliographs, four pairs of standards, unit bases, and uniform information. There are enough to make a platoon of 3 sections plus an HQ section.

Also included are 32x 20mm circular and 4x 40mm square bases for the support teams. Galiots were smaller faster more maneuverable versions of the galley. Measuring from feet long, these shallow craft were favored as patrol boats and escorts for larger galleys. The main fighting vessel in the Mediterranean for hundreds of years, galleys in the renaissance became amazing instruments of war. Just behind the spur, or ram of the ship, renaissance galleys had an array of guns in the bow, with one heavy gun running down the center line keel, flanked by smaller caliber guns.

The Prussian regiments can be represented in either Kollet or in the campaign Litewka. The lanterna or great galley was an oversized variant of the standard galley. Measuring up to feet long, and sporting two or three masts, they were slow ships and depending on overall size needed or more oarsmen to row. Lanternas were built for transporting soldiers into battle and crushing the enemy with a great amount of ordnance in the bow.

Named after the large lanterns mounted on the sterns which were used for signaling and recognition, the lanterna was most often used as flagships by commanders. Variations of the lanterna were called Petronas in Italian, and Capitanas in Spanish and by the Turks. Measuring from 90 feet long with 20 oars per side and a single mast, these shallow craft were favored by corsairs for coastal raiding, as well as using 'swarm' tactics on larger ships. Galiots only had one centerline gun, and some swivel guns.

Just behind the long spur, or ram of the ship, renaissance galleys had an array of guns in the bow, with one heavy gun running down the center line keel, flanked by smaller caliber guns. The lanterna or great galley was an over sized variant of the standard galley.

Lanternas were built for war and capable of transporting soldiers into battle while crushing the enemy with a great amount of ordnance in the bow. Variations of the lanterna were called Petronas in Italian, and Capitanas in Spanish. The Galleass, with its foot beam and 25 banks of oars per side was a Venetian invention. Built out of older merchant gallea grossa, the galleass was fitted a round forecastle on the front that held 6- 9 large guns with more guns on the sides and stern.

The Galleass was slow and not very maneuverable They were towed into place at the battle of Lepanto but more than made up for this by having degree fire power and high defensive capabilities. In a sense, the Galleas was a floating fortress!

Often referred to as blockade runners, CR90 corvettes can be outfitted to slip through Imperial blockades, haul cargo, serve as trooper carriers, or engage Imperial ships in battle. The expansion comes with one pre-painted miniature CR90 corvette, one command dial, all requisite tokens, and ship cards for both the CR90a and CR90b configurations.

Additionally, eight upgrades allow you to equip your corvette for battle, including the commander card, Mon Mothma, and the Tantive IV title card. At three-hundred meters long, a single Nebulon-B could boast twelve turbolasters and twelve laser cannons. The showpiece of the Nebulon-B Expansion Pack for Star Wars: Armada is its detailed and pre-painted Nebulon-B frigate miniature, and the expansion then enhances this ship by supplying all the command dials and tokens you need to fly it, along with ship cards that allow you to build it into your fleet as a fighter escort or as a powerful support ship.

Additionally, the expansion's eight upgrade cards, which include two unique title cards, allow you to further customize your frigate's role within your fleet. The enemy fleet is approaching firing range, and squadrons of starfighters are racing into position.

As you prepare for the upcoming conflicts of Star Wars: Armada, you'll want to make sure your strategy is sound, your ships are in good repair, and you have all the ammunition you need. With the nine custom dice in the Star Wars: Armada Dice Pack, you can better concentrate your fire, raining destruction upon your foes!

The Star Wars: Armada Maneuver Tool accessory pack provides you an easy way to add a second maneuver tool to your games. Alternatively, you can use its components to build a shorter maneuver tool to accompany your full-size maneuver tool for use with slower fleets or to navigate your ships more easily through tighter spaces.

Limited quantities. First come, first served. Also included are four skilled pilots, including one of the Rebellion's most distinguished and capable pilots, Wedge Antilles. Also included are six pilots, like the crafty Imperial pilot 'Backstabber,' one of Darth Vader's wingmen in the Battle of Yavin. Originally intended as a prisoner transport, the Firespray gained notoriety through association with some of the galaxy's most fearsome pirates and bounty hunters, including the infamous Boba Fett.

We remained at Sulivan Bay for a long time, prisoners of a prolonged calm. Water had to be rationed, and things began to look bleak, until a breeze allowed us to set sail. However, this breeze was no blessing. We became its plaything as it alternately blew and ceased, causing the strong current to finally carry us to the shores of arid Marchena, where we miraculously managed to avoid being shipwrecked.

In , my father, Captain Herman H. This was shortly before her mysterious and much publicized disappearance. I shall never forget those delightful eight months on Santa Cruz. It was then that Kristian Stampa, one of the Norwegians from the cannery project, taught me how to fish. The former cannery building had gone up in flames, the sunbaked Norwegian fir planking burning like tinder.

Soon, the burning upper floor began to collapse into the ground floor, where the garrison kept its supplies and ammunition. This latter went up in a series of impressive explosions to the great excitement and joy of us children. Another event that made a great impression on me was one of the visits made by the American millionaire Vincent Astor on his yacht Noormahal. While at Academy Bay, he invited my parents and the Raeders, a Danish couple, for tea.

Eric, my brother, and I went along. The yacht was large and had been equipped for scientific expeditions. There were aquaria around the afterdeck for keeping marine specimens, a gymnasium, a large library and a laboratory. After going to school for a few years, Eric and I returned to Santa Cruz, in , to visit our father, who had remained when we returned to the mainland, in Except for a larger population -- about a hundred and twenty people -- little had changed.

Both Eric and I missed some of the comforts and foods we had been used to, but we took to the primitive, Spartan life with no serious problems. We enjoyed a much greater freedom than we had been used to, we were happy to live in close contact with nature, and found hunting, fishing and exploring exciting.

Towards the end of the fishing season, I went out with Kristian Stampa. Since he was looking for new fishing grounds, I had the opportunity to visit many places that most local fishing boats never went to. The next season I went out again. Because of a fall from an avocado tree -- he had stepped on a rotten branch -- my father died at the age of seventy-one, in August We were undecided on what we should do.

In , with all the legal paperwork cleared away, we returned to the mainland to collect our inheritance. We started to look around for a suitable property or something else in which to invest. Finding nothing promising enough, we returned to Santa Cruz ten months later. In the end, things did not work out as expected. In , I went to Colombia, where I gained my first experiences in the prawn fisheries as first deck officer of the Jay Bee, a large trawler with packing and freezing facilities, doubling as mother ship to a number of smaller vessels.

Our search for new fishing grounds along Ecuador and the Pacific coast of Colombia gave me much useful information for some of my future activities. A year later, I spent a little over a year in the Norwegian merchant marine, mainly sailing between Colombia and the United States, then returned finally to work both at sea and on land in the now flourishing Ecuadorian prawn industry. At the beginning of , he appointed me his representative in the islands.

The period of was an exciting time for me. I followed closely the development of the Charles Darwin Research Station, keeping in frequent contact with its earliest directors. In fact, I still have had occasional contacts with the first one, Dr. Roger Perry, who was director during six years and initiated the captive breeding of tortoises. It was for his predecessor, Dr.

I also collected specimens for several botanist friends, and came across an until then unknown giant cactus, which I collected, described and named Opuntia megasperma var. When we had arrived in February , we decided to remain on the ship for the cruise around the islands, which included such remote places as Iguana Cove, Tagus Cove both on Isabela , and California Cove Fernandina.

During that cruise my friendship with Dr. I had met one of their representatives, Clarence Elliott, in Guayaquil the previous year. Several members of this group became my friends and I was in constant contact with them for as long as they remained in the islands and, in a few cases, after they had left. There were also a number of "official duties" as well, originating from my friendship with the various officials.

Commander Reinaldo Vallejo, CO of the Second Naval Zone, recruited me to teach in the course for fishing vessel skippers he had organized for the islanders. Commander Fausto Alvear, a later military governor, asked me to take charge of the search for a tourist from a yacht, who had lost her way on Floreana. However inconvenient some of these "duties" could be at times, they gave me the pleasure of being useful.

When the official inauguration of the Charles Darwin Research Station finally took place, I was on my monthly tour of the islands. When I arrived to Santa Cruz, Dr. David Snow, who was then Director at the Station, took time to introduce me to the more important members of the Darwin Foundation.

This kind old gentleman seemed to irradiate goodness. I am grateful and happy to have met this extraordinary gentleman, who had done so much for the cause of conservation. Unfortunately, he died shortly after his return to Belgium. A symposium with the participation of sixty-six scientists took place at the same time as the inauguration.

In this group were several good friends, like Dr. Robert I. Bowman, at that time Secretary for the Americas of the Darwin Foundation, whom I had first met in Yale Dawson, who would succeed Bowman as secretary a few months later, was also present. I had befriended Dawson in , and had since kept in touch with him, until his unfortunate death in Egypt, in Then, came and with it our return to the mainland, where I took charge of a fishing operation in the northern part of the Gulf of Guayaquil.

After a cruise across the Pacific, with stops at the Marquesas, Tahiti, Vanuatu and Noumea, came eight years in Australia, with various activities, the last of them as inspector on a pipeline construction job, in charge of supervising the restoration of the right-of-way and erosion prevention. Then, the circle was closed. In I was again back in Norway, from where I had left forty-six years earlier as a small child. So much for the background. In recent years I have discovered with surprise how much I have accumulated about the history of the islands.

It was Dr. There are too many voids in the source material. One could naturally play it safe, writing about the history of their exploration, as records about the whalers, sealers and scientific expeditions are available to those who have the time and the opportunity to go through this abundant material.

Joseph R. Slevin produced an excellent book Slevin, on this subject, making a good selection from what must have been an overwhelming amount of material. I have of course omitted much material, weeding out what I believe to be irrelevant, dropping suspect information and what is outright slanderous and sensationalistic.

On the other hand, I may have been somewhat generous with the background material on the Spaniards and the buccaneers, mainly because I found this kind of information wanting elsewhere and thought it to be useful to provide a clearer picture of these two subjects. In most of our sources, few details are given about the spectacular escape of Briones and his gang from Floreana in Another person who is given more space than she really deserves is the notorious Baroness von Wagner.

Some space has been given to the Norwegian settlers, though the great majority of them did not stay, and those who did are no longer there. An outstanding exception to this is the book by Dr. Hoff , which unfortunately, at this time, is only available in Norwegian. An English translation, made by the late Mrs. In most literature in English, until fairly recently, the English names, most of them given by the buccaneers, were generally in use.

The official names of the islands have gradually come into use in the more recent literature, largely through the influence of Ecuadorian scientists, who have increasingly participated in the activities of the Charles Darwin Research Station and the Darwin Foundation. A list of island names with their synonyms follows. Before ending this introduction, I wish to express my deep gratitude to people who have generously provided information that has made it possible to bring the last chapters up to date.

To Captain Eric G. Lundh, my brother, for his report on his visit to Santa Cruz in , and to Dr. I am also very thankful for the interest that Dr. Hamann and the present Secretary General of the Foundation, Dr. Fernando Espinoza Fuentes have shown for the present history.

Information about many of the settlers has reached me thanks to Dr. Stein Hoff, the late Mrs. Elfriede Horneman, and Mrs. I feel special gratitude towards Engineer Martin Krafft of Krafft Design, Oslo, who has shown great interest in my work with this MS, providing me with one of his PCs, assistance, data from the Internet, and finally getting me hooked on the world of Multimedia.

Last but certainly not least, I wish to thank Dr. Bowman of the Department of Biology of San Francisco State University for the generous amount of information that he has sent me regarding the latest and deplorable developments in the islands. Baltra is officially known by this name, but was formerly called Seymour or South Seymour to distinguish it from the low islet to the north of it by the same name.

It is about 25 kms2 reaching an altitude of about meters. This bay was formerly known as Birs Cove. Its main anchorage is a small, shallow cove in the NE, sheltered by a rocky islet. Culpepper, officially known as Darwin, has also been called Guerra and los Hermanos. Its area is about 2. The best landing is in the NE, in a small bight protected by a steep, rocky islet. About 18 kms2 in area, it reaches an altitude of m. Its original name was Narborough and it has also been called Plata.

The highest point is m, at the rim of the main crater. Its highest mountain is Cerro de la Paja, at m. This latter place is uninhabited. With an area of about 60 kms2 it reaches an altitude of about m. The best landing is at Gardner Bay, in the NE, a bay of considerable beauty and a good anchorage. Isabela is called so officially, though its oldest name is Albemarle.

It has also been called Santa Gertrudis. Cerro Azul, in the SW is only slightly lower. With an area of about 5 kms2 it reaches an altitude of m. Its best anchorage and landing is on its northern side. Marchena is the official name of this island that was formerly known as Bindloe and Torres. It has an area of kms2 and reaches an altitude of m. Pinta is officially called by this name and was formerly known as Abingdon and Geraldina. Its oldest name is Dassigney, but it has also been called Grande, Mercedes and Solano.

Its area of about kms2 makes it the fifth in size of the archipelago. General Villamil named it Puerto Cabello. It is a small bay in the SW end of the island, sheltered by Schiavoni Reef. Other anchorages are the large Stephens Bay Puerto Grande to the NE of Wreck Bay, at the head of which lies the shallow but sheltered Sappho Cove, and Freshwater Bay, an open roadstead on the exposed south side of the island, where a small steam of fresh water runs down from a nine-meter high cliff.

Santa Cruz has long been known by this, its official name, though it was also widely known as Indefatigable. Its highest point is Mount Crocker with m. It is on the south coast. This latter was named Turtle Cove by the Americans at the Baltra base.

It reaches an altitude of m. There are two good bays on this island, Sulivan Bay on the east side, and James Bay in the west. The latter is divided by an enormous lava field, the part south of the latter being known as Puerto Egas, while the part to the north is called la Espumilla.

Tower is officially called Genovesa, and has also been known as Ewres and Carenero. Its area is 17 kms2 and its altitude only 76 m. Large Darwin Bay, the remains of a huge crater, provides a good anchorage and good landing on the south side. It has an area of only 1. The islands are located on the equator, spreading from almost kms north of it to a little over kms. There are about kms. The shortest distance to Central America is 1, kms.

The land area of the islands is about 7, km2 of which Isabela, the largest island, takes up all of 4, km2. The group may be conveniently divided into six larger and nine smaller islands, not counting a number of islets and rocks. All the six larger islands lie south of the equator, except for the northern end of Isabela, the only place where the line crosses land in the archipelago.

The nine smaller islands are arid, except for Pinta, which happens to be the only one north of the equator having a moist highland area. There is a drop of over one thousand fathoms from this plateau to the surrounding ocean floor. The drop is greatest and most abrupt in the W and SW, there being depths of seventeen hundred fathoms as close as six to eight nautical miles off Fernandina and Isabela, the two westernmost islands.

The archipelago is of volcanic origin, consisting primarily of basaltic lava and tuff, with volcanic scoriae and ashes. There are also some sedimentary formations, such as the Pliocene layer of marine shells found in the Cerro Colorado area, on the NE side of Santa Cruz, and the shell sand area, about 40 feet above sea level, NE of Puerto Villamil Isabela , believed to go back to the Pleistocene. It has been suggested more recently that the Cerro Colorado deposits may be much older than previously thought, going all the way back to the upper Miocene.

Cox, Soil has formed in many parts by the decomposition of volcanic rock, pumice dust and decayed plant material, especially in the moister inland areas. There is evidence in many parts that the islands have been rising, as can be seen from the shell deposits mentioned above, those found on Baltra, and others.

Marine shells encrusted on wave worn pieces of lava are common on somewhat higher ground, behind the village. In some parts, on the top of these, are stones that appear to have been smoothed by wave erosion. It seems likely that the cliffs at Iguana Cove itself were also formed during the same upheaval, but evidence for this is now hidden under the soil and vegetation.

This rising is still going on, though on a smaller scale. The bottom of the old anchorage at Puerto Villamil, which was much closer to the shore than the present one, rose so much in , that it became too shallow for ships to anchor there. In early , part of the bottom of Urbina Bay rose so abruptly, that fish were left high and dry.

Both these locations are on Isabela, an island that still shows much volcanic activity. As it does on the mainland coast, this enormous mass of cold water affects the sea life, the climate and the landscape, creating a semiarid lowland in the archipelago, that comprises most of the insular surface. The influence of this cold current is strongest during the second half of the year, weakening towards December.

This part of the year is called the "dry season" by English-speaking authors, because of the appearance of the lowlands. The local people call it "verano" summer , which is also the name used for this season on the mainland coast. Both names are misleading, as it is rather wet in the highlands at this time, and the season is the coldest of the year. During this period, the SE trades dominate.

The lowland vegetation remains dormant and leafless, save for a few hardy species. Even these are partly defoliated. During much of the second half of the year, the skies remain overcast. Great masses of cloud are pushed against the mountains by the trade wind. As the clouds are forced up, they cool and can no longer hold all their moisture, releasing much of it as a drizzle.

It is this phenomenon that makes agriculture possible on some of the larger islands. As should be expected, the greater extent of the moist highlands is on the windward side of the islands where they are found. On this side, the moist region usually begins above an altitude of two hundred meters.

In the former location, the moist zone begins at an altitude of one hundred and ten meters, while it reaches sea level at the latter place. On the leeward sides, the moist zone begins at considerably higher altitudes than on the windward sides and is narrower. By December, the climate has become perceptibly warmer. The winds turn increasingly unstable as the season progresses. The doldrums, the low pressure area outside Central America, moves south.

The wind direction can vary, even coming from the north. This last wind is often associated with heavy swells. Calms are frequent. The sea water also becomes warmer, for the cold current weakens, and some of its chill has been reduced by the southern summer.

This current receives its name from the fact that it appears around Christmas. There is a marked change in the climate. Heavy showers, often very localized, fall both on the highlands and the lowlands. While the skies are mostly clear in between, there is often a hazy horizon. The air temperature is noticeably higher than in the cool season. The arrival of the warm season rains and their frequency for any given year are variable, but their effect on the lowlands is always dramatic.

The dry zone is totally transformed wherever any vegetation can find a crevice in the lava or a patch of soil in which to grow. Annuals seem to appear overnight from the dust. The trees and bushes sprout leaves in a surprisingly short time. The lowlands are filled with the buzz of insects and the song of birds. This hectic revival of an apparently dead world is in most ways reminiscent of the feverish spring and summer of the arctic regions. This period is the "rainy season" of the English-speaking writers, and the "invierno" -- winter -- of the local people and those living on the mainland coast.

In some years the warm season may become extremely rainful. The warm current flows then with unusual strength, moving farther south than usual. The low pressure area off Central America also moves farther south than in normal years. The most extreme case on record is the warm season of It rained so much then, that many arborescent cacti fell over, their roots having become rotten in the prolonged wetness of the ground.

The rains continued almost halfway into the next season, and some lowland trees blossomed several times instead of once. Unfortunately, such rainy seasons are followed by drought, the severity of which seems to be proportional to the abundance of the previous rains.

It was shocking to see how defoliated and wilted the vegetation was. Those sea birds that can migrate do so. Others, like the flightless cormorant and the penguins, lose most of their young, while the mortality among the adults is greatly increased. The same happens with the fur seals, sea lions and the marine iguanas. However, in the following years these animals recover, no doubt with the help of an increased food supply that has become available by a decrease in competition.

Among land animals, especially birds, the situation is reversed. The enormous increase in insects and plant life brought about by the abundant rains provides food for increased populations. However, the following year, the inevitable drought cuts back on these increased populations by starving the young and the weaker adults.

However, the importance of these cycles to evolution is obvious. The abundance of all sorts of life enriches the food chain, producing a population increase along it. Then, comes the inevitable drought, killing off the weaker specimens in each group. The first colonists to succeed in establishing themselves must have been marine organisms and the sea birds preying on them.

The next would have been the earliest plants. However, many a biologist has found it an almost insurmountable barrier. But it is not, if we consider that much greater distances had to be covered by organisms that populated other oceanic islands, such as the Hawaii and the Marquesas, and other islands elsewhere in the Pacific.

Still, the distance is there, and it is very much of a problem. It must take its toll of dead plants and animals, making the process of establishment of life on the islands a very long and painful one. For this process is at best a hit or miss proposition. The number of spores, seeds and other propagules, plants and animals lost for each that managed to arrive must have been staggering. Then, there must have been an enormous loss of life among those that managed to come ashore at all.

The successful survivors must have been few, which also explains the genetic isolation in which the majority of their descendants have lived, leading -- together with the pressures of a frequently hostile environment -- to the development of the many endemic forms that exist today. The dangers to life forms on such a voyage are numerous. If rafting on one of the big masses of vegetation that are swept to sea by the Guayas River system, to be carried along on the ocean currents, or voyaging on a floating log, the living organisms would be exposed to the saltiness of the sea and the heat of the sun for a rather long period of time.

Then, on arrival, they might reach the wrong place or the right place at the wrong time of the year. Eruptions and flowing lava must also have taken their toll. This may also have been the end of already established life forms, such as the Fernandina tortoise, which is believed to have met its extinction because of the great volcanic activity of its native island. Another form of travel, suitable for insects and some seeds, would be in the feathers of birds.

There are a number of migratory birds that visit the islands regularly. There are also many that are occasional visitors. Spores are known to travel considerable distances on air currents. This fact no doubt explains why our fern flora, which is relatively rich in species, should include so extremely few endemic forms. Obviously, these plants do not live in sufficient genetic isolation from mainland species. Many plant species are identical.

This is nothing strange. The Central American affinities are fewer, if we leave out those forms that are common to both continental areas. This is also to be expected. The Caribbean element is the smallest of the three, and is mainly found among some marine organisms.

While reptilians are very much in evidence, amphibians are totally absent even from the moist highlands. The latter could hardly be expected to survive the long sea voyage, while the former are hardy enough to live through extreme conditions. Orr, The dispersal of life among the islands themselves does not appear to have been much easier.

At least some species have been able to live in sufficient genetic isolation to develop characteristics peculiar to an island and even a locality. The opuntia cacti are a good example as far as plants are concerned. These cacti are found forming six different species that are divided into twelve forms. To make our point, we shall only mention those found on the southern and south-central islands, as they will sufficiently illustrate the situation.

The south-central islands have another species -- O. One of the several examples that come to mind among the animals is that of the mockingbirds. They are found forming four different species, the most widespread being Nesomimus parvulus. Each island where this last species occurs has its own form, a total of seven having been described. Swarth, The southern islands have one species each -- N.

Harris, Territorial isolation is not of course the only factor behind the formation of new species and varieties. Local conditions may vary considerably from place to place, even on the same island and in the same botanical zone. Such factors as age difference in the lava formations, available soil, exposure to prevailing winds, etc. So is the presence of populations already established in a niche that could have been occupied by a newly arrived species. The presence of suitable insects for pollination could be critical or their absence a stimulus to adaptation, the latter in the case of a species that is both entomophilous and self pollinating.

In this case, it would be likely that the plant became increasingly adapted to self-pollination. Rick, ; Linsey, The pressures stimulating adaptation and change are many. One can be tempted to think that those groups showing the greatest adaptive radiation would be the earliest to have arrived to the islands. Bowman, It appears that the finches moved gradually into several unoccupied niches, adapting to various feeding habits and thus becoming increasingly specialized.

However, most of these birds are not over-specialized, and will eat a variety of foods, which may suggest that their adaptation is still going on. None is strictly vegetarian or strictly insectivorous. The most specialized of them is Certhidea olivacea, the warbler finch, which both in structure and habit is basically insectivorous, though it may feed on pollen sacs Bowman, , and young leaves and nectar Lack, Carson, H. The differences between the two genera of iguanas are considerably greater than those between the various genera of finches.

The land iguana Conolophus has remained in a terrestrial habitat like its mainland relatives, but under far harsher conditions. The marine iguana Amblyrhynchus cristatus has however undergone great adaptations. It is a good diver, remaining under water for long periods, while feeding on algae, its main food. Marine iguanas also eat carrion, such as dead fish that has been washed up by the tide.

There is evidence suggesting that these are drowned islands, for these sea mounts have features that suggest wave-cut terraces, and stones recovered from them show signs of wave erosion -- both characteristics that could not have developed under the sea. Christie et al. We have already mentioned that the supposed Pliocene age of the Cerro Colorado sediments may be an underestimate of their true age.

We must also point out that young and old volcanic formations exist side by side even on such young islands as Isabela, where the tuffaceous formations at Tags Cove are overlapped by fairly recent lava, the hills being about all that can now be seen of them. In fact, all the tuffaceous formations we have seen here and elsewhere in the Galapagos are overlapped by younger lava formations.

The SW side, which is the highest, looks considerably older than the rest of the island, where rather bare and jagged lava fields are common. What may be buried under the various formations we do not know. The differences caused on the climate by the altitude have been mentioned earlier. Here, we shall look a little closer at the latitudinal zones that result from this.

Many early visitors have remarked on the great contrast between the dry lowlands and the moist highlands, especially during the cooler part of the year, when their differences are greatest. Albania Steward, who divided and named the Galapagos botanical zones. Steward, ; We consider that his divisions are still valid, though some recent authors have changed some of the names, neglecting to give any evidence for the need to do so.

The ocean water surrounding the Galapagos Islands has a rich marine life, which has provided the basis for a large sea bird population and, in the past, an abundance of sea lions and fur seals. The commercial value of the Galapagos fisheries has also been great when it comes to pelagic species like the Thuds.

Their value when it comes to the more sedentary species, which are exploited by the settlers, has on the other hand been greatly exaggerated. The shore region, which provides nesting places for most of the sea birds and gives them a place to rest, as it does to the sea lions and the seals, is a very variable environment, offering different conditions that often attract different species.

Recent botanists have named this the "Littoral Zone". The word "zone" is however misleading, if we consider the absolute lack of continuity and the variable character of the shoreline. Some years ago, before it was recognized with a name of its own, we reluctantly called it "the shore region". Lundh, ; Alban Stewart seems to have found the shoreline too unimportant to deserve being called a botanical zone.

Though he collected there, he does not mention it as a separate botanical area. Cliffs are numerous in the Galapagos. Quite often, they are too high or are found in sheltered places of the coast. In both cases, the sea spray will not reach their upper parts, and such cliffs will only show a typical dry zone vegetation on their tops, except at Iguana Cove, where the vegetation is more medic. In such cases, at least botanical, the "littoral zone" would not exist.

However, there are also other cliffs, lower and more exposed, which have the seas breaking heavily against their foot and the breeze carrying up much of the spray. This is the case of the southern Plaza Island, which has cliffs on its windward side. Here, the vegetation is halophytic on the ledges and even on the top. The plants found here and in similar locations consist of only a few species of small size -- creepers like Sesuvium portulacastrum and its reddish endemic relative S.

These frequently grow associated with a coarse grass Sporobolus virginicus. Another bird that likes to nest on sea cliffs is the Madeira storm petrel Oceanodroma castro. The low parts of the coast, whether beaches or rocky shores, make up a different habitat. The vegetation here is slightly richer in species. White mangrove Laguncularia racemosa is also common in the form of bushes or small trees, usually prostrate. There is also a small tree Maytenus octogona present, forming little groups or standing isolated among the other vegetation.

A little farther in, these plants are joined by shrubs of a buckthorn Scutia pauciflora , often hidden in the thickets, where its innumerable long, rigid spines provide an unpleasant surprise to the unwary.

The low trees in such coastal stretches, wherever there is some shelter from the wind, often support the nests of brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis and boobies. In many parts, at high tide, the black rocks are decorated with the bright orange red of the Sally Lightfoot crabs Grapsus grapsus or "zayapas", once so abundant even near some of the inhabited places.

When the tide is in, the marine iguanas Amblyrhynchus cristatus will be warming themselves in the sun, after their long diving expeditions in search of seaweeds, looking like small dragons of weathered bronze. The sea lions Zalophus californianus wollebaeki form their colonies on this type of coast, especially where sand beaches occur. Another inhabitant of these shores is the lava gull Larus fuliginosa , found solitary or in groups, mostly inside bays and on beaches.

This noisy endemic scavenger is quite numerous on the sandy flat land of Puerto Villamil Isabela , where it wanders among the houses, competing for food with the dogs and chickens. Unlike its relative the swallow-tailed gull, which feeds by night, over the sea, the lava gull stays away from exposed cliffs. Two remarkable sea birds should be mentioned. Both of these live in the western parts of the archipelago. In the few places where sand dunes occur above the beaches, these offer few forms of animal life, except for some insects and arachnids, a few lizards and snakes.

The vegetation is usually scattered, with occasional bushes of Cacabus miersii, a species of morning glory Ipomoea pes-caprae -- sometimes up to ten meters long -- and, close to the high tide limit, a low shrub Scaevola plumieri. There are a few species of dry region plants too -- small herbaceous plants with some resistance to salt spray, which also grow above beaches elsewhere.

It is usual to find a belt of mesquite Prosopis juliflora behind such dunes. This species is known in Ecuador as "algarrobo". Where brackish water is present, these stretches between the dunes and the dry region have associations of manchineel with Cryptocarpus, a small evergreen bush Alternanthera echinocephala and the taller Tournefortia rufo-sericea.

The most striking parts of the insular coasts are those supporting mangroves, because of the dramatic contrast these provide to the dry lowlands next to them and behind them. Such places are often associated with briny ponds and small salt marshes, two formations that are sometimes met with behind beaches and mangroves. When the tide is in, this part of the mangrove formation looks like a great mass of floating vegetation of a glossy green color.

Behind this fringe and along the shore itself grows the white mangrove Laguncularia racemosa with an equally dense foliage of a duller and darker green. Where there are salt flats and marshes on the inland side of this vegetation, one is likely to find individual trees or small groups of the taller black mangrove Avicennia germinans , with its numerous pneumatophores sticking up from the surrounding muddy ground.

Along the shores of salt ponds and marshes, where these are found behind the mangroves, there are frequently extensive low masses of a succulent shrub Batis maritima. Near such places, a little farther in, appear the first Jerusalem thorns Parkinsonia aculeata , with their few long and slender branches. This tree is also found scattered throughout the lower reaches of the dry zone.

In this same salty-dry area thrive small groups of Maytenus octogona, tangled masses of the spiny Scutia and dense thickets of Cryptocarpus. In the low areas behind Puerto Villamil, where pools of brackish water are common, there is also an abundance of sedges. However, the largest area of marshes, brackish pools and salt lagoons is that extending from Puerto Villamil as far west as the vicinity of Cape Rose, along the south coast of the same island.

This is not to be confused with Tortuga Bay, a lagoon to the west of Puerto Ayora Academy Bay , on the other side of the island. The marshes and ponds are the favorite haunt of birds like the white-cheeked pintail Anas bahamensis , the moorhen Gallinula chloropus , and certain waders like the whimbrel Numenius phaeopus. The different herons, already mentioned, are also common in such places.

Where the salt water is briny and shallow, the pink flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber is found. It is nowhere numerous, despite the fact that it nests in the islands. These birds are attracted by the insects in such places, which offer an abundance of tiny flies, gnats, mosquitoes and gadflies. Along the shore, we have found plants that are mostly identical to mainland species of the corresponding habitats there. The dry lowlands also have a considerable share of mainland plant species, though the endemics are more numerous here than along the shore itself.

The climate is like that of the Santa Elena Peninsula, on the mainland. To the uninterested layman, the two landscapes will look very much alike, except for the soil , which on the mainland is of sedimentary origin, while that of the islands is volcanic and largely rocky.

Also, the underbrush will seem denser in most parts of the mainland, with the trees and the bushes growing closer together. To the naturalist, professional or amateur, there are more differences. There is far too much missing from the insular flora, even if we allow for the differences in soil composition that could have been detrimental to some species.

However, they are more closely related to certain mainland species than is apparent. Jasminocereus, a large arborescent island cactus, is close to Monvillea maritima, a slender mainland species. Dawson, The bare trees, the rocks, and the dry, dusty soil -- in those few places where there is any -- give little promise of life, except after the rains of the warm season, and then but for a short period.

However, life is there in abundance, and all of it is not dormant, like the leafless trees and the seeds that rest patiently in the ground, among the rocks, waiting for the first rains. Much of the insect life survives the dry months in the form of eggs and pupae, but there is still enough of it around to provide food for the lava lizards Tropidurus sps. Nor do the mockingbirds suffer want, nor the yellow warblers Dendroica petechia. The occasional large-billed flycatcher Myiarchus magnirostris , which prefers the highlands, also finds suitable prey here.

Finches are always numerous in the arid lowlands. There are small ground finches Geospiza fuliginosa , medium ones G. This last species uses twigs and spines to pull grubs and other prey from dead wood, when its beak proves insufficient for the task. But native predators also exist. Both these feed on smaller sea birds, rats, mice, centipedes and snakes, as well as on land birds. One cannot leave this zone behind without mentioning the land iguana Conolophus subcristatus , one of the hardiest dry zone inhabitants, which has disappeared from or been greatly reduced in numbers within its former extensive habitat.

The dismal gray of the lowland vegetation gives an impression of sameness, which in turn makes many think that there are but few plant species in this region. As we have seen above, when compared to similar regions on the mainland, this is so, but there is more to this region than meets the eye of the superficial observer. The cacti form a striking feature in many places, though nowhere to the degree as do the opuntia trees that are such an important part of the lowland forests of southern Santa Cruz.

This cactus Opuntia echios var. The candelabrum-like Jasminocereus thouarsii, of which there are several varieties, while remarkable, is much less abundant than the above, as it is reduced mostly to rocky outcroppings, cliff edges and more or less bare lava fields. It seems to be very sensitive to the shade produced by other large vegetation, but not to such an extent as Brachycereus nesioticus. This very low, exceedingly spiny species, found only on the most barren lava fields, thrives only where nothing else will grow.

On most islands, the dominant tree in the lowlands is the palosanto Bursera graveolens , with its short, grayish trunk and wide, spreading crown of flexible branches. It is often found in association with the porotillo Erythrina velutina and matasarno Piscidia carthagenensis , on the islands where these occur.

Small trees, often reaching the size of mere bushes, are also found scattered throughout the lowlands -- the Jerusalem thorn Parkinsonia aculeata , the muyuyo Cordia lutea , the manchineel Hippomane mancinella , the aromo Acacia macracantha , the algarrobo Prosopis juliflora , and Castela galapageia. Small bushes of Alternanthera echinocephala are also common, as is the more abundant chala Croton scouleri , this latter often forming a very important part of the vegetation.

Thickets of buckthorn Scutia pauciflora and of algarrobo are frequently met with, especially at the bottom of canyons. As one ascends towards the interior, changes take place, most of them imperceptible at first. Such trees as the Jerusalem thorn and Jasminocereus are left behind in the lower parts of the dry zone, while the snakes and the lava lizards will rarely be seen in the upper reaches of the dry lowlands.

The only reptiles that are still seen here are geckoes and the occasional land iguana, where these latter still survive. Towards the upper parts of this zone, the first few hardy ferns make their appearance, announcing by their presence that one will soon enter the transition zone. Though some of it may give that impression, the dry zone is not homogenous. There are open areas of dry soil, which support grasses and other annuals after the first warm season rains, there are desolate lava fields with little or no vegetation, there are areas where Croton scouleri is dominant.

An example of this last is the area in the north of James Bay, on Santiago, where the steepness of the mountain seems to favor the condensation of moisture at a lower altitude than is usual, though to a lesser degree than is the case at Iguana Cove SW Isabela.

There may also be places where ground water exists, which would explain the presence of well developed pegapega trees Pisonia floribunda behind Sugar Loaf Mountain, in James Bay, and in some parts inland from the shore, at Puerto Ayora Academy Bay , though these trees belong more in the transition and the moist zone. Quite often this has been described as a zone where the vegetation of the lowlands mixes with that of the moist highlands, the latter becoming increasingly dominant as one ascends.

This is largely true, though this region has its own characteristic flora that makes it unique. The lichen flora is at least as abundant here as lower down. In places, a pendent lichen Ramalina usnea hangs in such abundance from the branches of trees and bushes, that it lends its grayish green color to the whole landscape.

Farther into this zone, the lichen flora is partially displaced by liverworts and mosses. Another plant that is characteristic of this altitude is Croton scouleri var. This cactus is now very rare. A small tree, Croton scouleri var. The Maytenus trees and the manchineel are still with us, but will become scarcer and finally disappear as the forest changes higher up.

This last species may reach a height of around twenty meters. The lechoso makes it first appearance as a small tree, then rapidly increases in height, forming extensive forests in the upper parts of the islands where it occurs. Other Scalesiae are found in the dry lowlands, even down by the shore, but these lowland species are usually small, stunted bushes, though they usually resemble in some ways their relative in the moist highlands.

As one ascends farther up, there is increasingly more soil, and more of the vegetation remains green throughout the year. Liverworts, mosses, ferns and, farther up, species of Peperomia and club mosses become abundant -- on the ground, on the rocks and on the branches of trees. A tank orchid Tillandsia insularis , which is also found in the transition zone, becomes increasingly abundant, growing mostly as an epiphyte. The abundant undergrowth, consisting of bushes such as Psychotria rufipes, Chiococca alba, Darwiniothamnus tenuifolius, and a number of other bushes as well as vines -- of these last, several morning glories Ipomoea sps.

The difference between the upper transition zone and the lower moist is more one of degree of luxuriance than in a difference in species. The plant life is much the same, but the trees are larger, the undergrowth denser, and the herbaceous flora and the epiphytes more abundant in the latter region.

In the moist zone there are also open areas with a dense herbaceous vegetation or brakes of different species of ferns. The latter become more common in the upper parts of the forests, where the most conspicuous fern is the rather large Pteridium aquilinum var. The former name is misleading. The forests of the moist region vary from place to place, and while it is true that the lechoso may be dominant and even form almost pure stands in many parts, we have also seen extensive areas where the guayabillo tree was dominant, with little or no lechoso present.

Such areas were considered by the early Norwegian settlers on Santa Cruz to have a soil that was shallower and of inferior quality as compared to that of the lechoso forests. However, the impression one receives in the highlands today, as compared to what was experienced before and shortly after the war, is quite different. We have all been inclined to use the south side of Santa Cruz as a model, since the botanical regions are there more clearly defined than elsewhere in the islands; but increased colonization has changed the landscape in most parts of the highlands.

Going even farther back in time, there used to be extensive guayabillo areas just above present day Bellavista, while the flat lands around the latter were covered mostly by lechoso forest. Ascending above the guayabillo forest, there was an area where the pegapega trees were dominant, forming a conspicuous area in the middle of an otherwise mixed forest. At higher altitudes, the trees tend to become smaller, the lechoso trees have become scarce or disappear altogether.

Here, brown festoons of hepatics Frullania sp. The open spaces with ferns and other herbaceous vegetation are met with more frequently, until one reaches a belt of shrubs, ferns and other low vegetation, marking the end of the forested region. This strikingly beautiful species, the cacaotillo Miconia robinsoniana rises above the stunted bushes and the dense fern growth. Because of its presence, this transition belt has been named by some authors the "Miconia Zone", though the term can only be rightly applied on the two mentioned islands.

While this transition belt exists on Pinta, Isabela and Santiago, cacaotillo is not known to grow on these three islands. Above this low belt of vegetation extends, on the islands where it is found, a region of more or less open grasslands, the "pampas" of the local people, with an abundance of sedges and ferns in most parts. In sheltered places like the lee side of hills, the beds of intermittent water courses, and depressions, ferns and stunted bushes form impenetrable thickets, covered with an abundance of mosses and hepatics.

Occasionally, there are also large areas covered with mosses. On Santiago and Pinta, the uppermost parts are covered by ferns and shrubs, while the highest volcano on Floreana has only a tiny grassy area on its summit, which gave origin to its Spanish name of "Cerro de la Paja" Hill of Straw. As one ascends into the moister parts, the animal life also changes.

As we have seen, snakes and lava lizards are limited to the lower parts, the land iguanas prefer the dry zone, and the mockingbird, while found well into the moist region, is noticeably scarcer there than on the coast. On the other hand, the dark-billed cuckoo Coccyzus melacoryphus , locally called "inviernero", becomes increasingly common as altitude is gained. The vermilion flycatcher or "brujo" Pyrocephalus rubinus and the large-billed one Myiarchus magnirostris increase in numbers with the altitude.

It is in the highlands that the dark-rumped or Hawaiian petrel Pterodroma phaeopygia , the "patapegada", digs its nesting burrows. Several species of finches are more or less common, some of them living also in the lowlands. Of those that seem to prefer the moist region, we can name the large tree finch Camarhynchus psittacula and the warbler finch Certhidea olivacea.

On islands that have a moist zone, the giant tortoises Geochelone elephantopus spend much of the year in the highlands, where there is plenty of food and numerous mud holes to wallow in, as well as pools of rain water. On such islands, there is a seasonal migration, when the great chelonians move towards the dry lowlands to lay their eggs. Ideally, at that time of the year, the warm season rains have brought to life an abundance of green vegetation and filled up the many places where rain water pools can be formed.

However, these animals, with their considerable fat reserves and their water-filled bladders and pericardia, can survive for an incredibly long time, should a drought set in before they can return to the highlands. The fauna of the open grasslands is poorer than that of the areas below it, but whimbrels Numenius phaeopus , white-cheeked pintails Anas bahamensis , and occasional moorhens Gallinula chloropus can be met with here, especially near rain water pools and on marshy ground.

Rails and martins are also common, and, in dry weather, so are ground finches, both the small and the medium one. And into this world of islands with misty mountains and forbidding rocky lowlands, man arrived. First, as an unwilling visitor, brought there by the currents; later,.

The identity of this human being, the first man to set foot on their shore, will forever remain a secret, lost in the mists of the distant past. There is no evidence of prehistoric settlements on the islands, but there are enough remains of camping sites that were used for limited sojourns. Though the very first visitors undoubtedly found this land beyond the sunset by accident, carried there by the currents, much of the archeological evidence indicates that many or most of the visitors must have had some knowledge of local conditions and that they had come for some specific purpose.

The tradition also disagrees in most of its details with those who claim that the Peruvian ruler traveled to these islands. Their versions can be said to complement and confirm each other. From these he informed himself of the countries from which they had come, which were some islands, the one called Avachumbi and the other Ninachumbi, where there were many people and much gold.

And as Topa Inga was lofty of spirit and thought, and was not content with what he had conquered on land, he decided to attempt this happy adventure across the sea. Him Topa Inga asked if what the seamen merchants told about the islands was true.

Antarqui replied, after thinking it well over, that what they said was indeed true, and that he would go there first. And, so they say, he went there with the aid of his arts, found the way, and saw the islands, the people and their wealth, and returning confirmed everything to Topa Inga.

And for this, he had a most numerous quantity of rafts built, on which he embarked more than twenty thousand chosen soldiers. This skin and jaw of a horse were kept by one of the main Incas, who lives today, and told this, and when the others gave witness was also present, and he is called Urco Guaranga. I stress this for it may seem a strange case and one hard to believe for those who have some knowledge of the Indies.

Topa Inga used more than nine months on this voyage, others claiming that it took a year, and since he took so much time, everybody believed him to be dead, but to cover up and pretend that he had news from Topa Inga, Apo Yupangui, his captain of the people who were ashore, acted as if he were happy, though this was later twisted, it being said that he rejoiced because he was pleased that Topa Inga Yupanqui did not appear, and this cost him his life.

For the sake of accuracy, he went so far that, once finished, he had his manuscript read by an interpreter before an assembly of more than forty prominent Incas, chosen from the twelve Ayllus clans of Cuzco, so that they could testify to its veracity and remark on what should be added or changed.

This was most likely to avoid straining too much the resources of the local chiefs, who had to feed them. Cabello, in Larrea, All depends on the route followed by the Peruvian armies. However, if navigating the inner waters of the gulf, the Inca would have missed seeing the Pacific in all its greatness.

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How to develop dapp on ethereum The marine iguana Amblyrhynchus cristatus has however undergone great adaptations. When I arrived to Santa Cruz, Dr. Jasminocereus, a large arborescent island cactus, is close to Monvillea maritima, a slender mainland species. It was a mountainous island, with bays and coves. The other Spanish ships tried to come to the rescue; but the large, slow, heavy galleons took their time to turn around, and were sluggish in recovering their speed.
How to make a cryptocurrency for free Then, the circle was closed. But it is not, if we consider that much greater distances had to be covered by organisms that populated other oceanic islands, such as forex peace Hawaii and the Marquesas, and other islands galleass in the Pacific. This cactus is now very rare. On the latter voyage, he attempted to establish a settlement in the area. Will, as he was called, had been hunting goats, when three large Spanish ships appeared unexpectedly.
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They usually had three masts, a forecastle and an aftcastle. Much effort was made in Venice to make these galleasses as fast as possible to compete with regular galleys. The gun deck usually ran over the rowers' heads, but there are also pictures showing the opposite arrangement.

Galleasses usually carried more sails than true galleys and were far deadlier; [3] a galley caught broadside lay all but helpless, since coming broadside to a galleass, as with a ship of the line , exposed an attacker to her gunfire. Relatively few galleasses were built—one disadvantage was that, being more reliant on sails, their position at the front of the galley line at the start of a battle could not be guaranteed.

Naval actions[ edit ] Venetian Galleasses were used successfully at the Battle of Lepanto in , their firepower helping to break the force of the first Turkish attack, [4] and eventually helping to win victory for the Holy League fleet. La Girona , eventually wrecked off Ireland , where they formed part of the front-line of fighting ships. In the Mediterranean , with its less dangerous weather and fickle winds, both galleasses and galleys continued to be in use, particularly in Venice and the Ottoman Empire , long after they became obsolete elsewhere.

Later, "round ships" and galleasses were replaced by galleons and ships of the line which originated in Atlantic Europe. The first Venetian ship of the line was built in The gun deck usually ran over the rowers' heads, but there are also pictures showing the opposite arrangement. Galleasses usually carried more sails than true galleys and were far deadlier; [3] a galley caught broadside lay all but helpless, since coming broadside to a galleass, as with a ship of the line , exposed an attacker to her gunfire.

Relatively few galleasses were built—one disadvantage was that, being more reliant on sails, their position at the front of the galley line at the start of a battle could not be guaranteed. Naval actions[ edit ] Venetian Galleasses were used successfully at the Battle of Lepanto in , their firepower helping to break the force of the first Turkish attack, [4] and eventually helping to win victory for the Holy League fleet.

La Girona , eventually wrecked off Ireland , where they formed part of the front-line of fighting ships. In the Mediterranean , with its less dangerous weather and fickle winds, both galleasses and galleys continued to be in use, particularly in Venice and the Ottoman Empire , long after they became obsolete elsewhere.

Later, "round ships" and galleasses were replaced by galleons and ships of the line which originated in Atlantic Europe. The first Venetian ship of the line was built in In the North Sea and the western Baltic , the term galeas refers to small commercial vessels similar to a flat-sterned herring buss. In Maritime Southeast Asia , local kingdoms also built galleasses, although the tactics used were different from those of European vessels.

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Galleass broker jerk!! verification have been rejected, but I have already uploaded the user ID and bank accounts recently, but always rejected on the grounds no address, but the address . Find local businesses, view maps and get driving directions in Google 1xbet.bookmaker1xbet.websiteg: galleass. See more of Galleass Capital Forex on Facebook. Log In. Forgot account? or. Create new account. Not now. Visitor Posts. Galleass Forex. September 12, at AM. New .